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I would cite this as a book section, including the DOI (because that's where you found it/how others will be able to find it) but not including "date accessed", because that is intended for more volatile resources like web pages. (If a reference has a DOI you can usually treat it as non-volatile.) Sticking as precisely as you can to a reference ...


A book is a written work distributed by a publisher, in physical or digital form. (Books and eBooks needn't be distinguished, they contain the same content.) Book drafts are distinguished, they are distributed by authors.


You can cite websites and documents (even private ones) in the usual way. You should acknowledge the organiser for posing the question that your algorithm addresses (since it isn't a contribution of yours). The score is valuable when presented with the scoring metric (since readers can presumably only verify the score using the metric). That poses a problem,...


You can include an Acknowledgements section in which you thank the company for the data and the contest as appropriate. You can include, there, a link to the data, etc. It is probably unnecessary to even mention the scoring metric for purposes of citation. It is possible that the company wants it kept private if they haven't published it.


Others have mentioned putting "q.v." ("which see") after a citation, and mentioned that it's pretty rare. I'll add that after two or more citations you can pluralize it to "qq.v.", which is even rarer.


Don't use Latin abbreviations unless you're writing in Latin, or the journal's style guide says otherwise. Simply put, most journals' style guide will dictate the use of a particular referencing style, which will include a particular method of in-text references. For instance, in a paper using the APA referencing style, you might write "According to ...

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