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State of the art refers only to the very highest accuracy ever achieved up to the point that you write your paper in computer science (I work in the field).


if I am writing a proof of a theorem and I need to refer a lemma that comes later in the same later. What is the proper way to say that? Many approaches are possible, it depends on the precise setting. E.g., when the lemma is relevant to that particular theorem, you could write: \begin{theorem}\label{mytheorem} ... \end{theorem} \begin{proof} ..., by ...


The proper way here is to rearrange your paper so that this does not happen. It might be possible to put the theorem into the paper twice. Once in the introduction, possibly without some technical details but with more context and intuition around it and once after the required lemmata a proven with all the technical details. The main reason is that the ...


Linguist here. I would rank publications in the following manner: books (reasonable to make plans while a grad student, but might be too ambitious for most PhD students to actually pursue while they're also working on their dissertations) peer-reviewed journal articles, which I think I'd rank almost alongside books if you're publishing in top-tier journals....


The most important publication for you as a PHD student is the publication that will award you your title. Normally that is your doctoral thesis although it can also be paper or two. That depends on your university. After you get your PHD title then the most valued publications are papers (in peer reviewed journals) because researchers/academics are ...


If it is a discussion board the audience are only the course instructor and the students of the course, whether or not you repeat the citation in your answer is not going to have any important or lasting effect. That said, while a very strict instructor might complain if you do not repeat the citation, I cannot imagine any way in which repeating the citation ...


Define your terms in the body of the paper. Abstracts are meant to give a broad sense of the research question and conclusion, so that the reader knows whether or not they want to read the actual paper. Abstracts do not educate readers on new concepts.


I found a formula in a book that I improved upon When you introduce the formula, cite the book, e.g., the following formula is proposed by Author X [1]: and then got help finding a number series Presumably you got help from someone. You can acknowledge that help at the end of your main body in an acknowledgements section. (Use \section*{...


Consult the style guide of the journal in question. Different style guides have different requirements on how different types of citations are to be performed. Harvard is different to IEEE which is in turn different to APA.


While the details are dependent on the venue where you are publishing, most mathematical papers will put the full citations at the end but reference them in the midst of the text (e.g., via a citation number). You can format these automatically if you use LaTeX, and the AMS provides widely used packages for formatting.


This is going to largely depend on the style guides of the journal(s) in question. If your long and tall figures are the best way to display the image, wrapping text around them is one feasible solution. The editors of the journal will be able to best guide you on this. I would submit the manuscript in a clean and readable format, then let the editors ...

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