Dimitri, this is a very big question that has probably generated a large number of research studies on questions like dissatisfaction and bullying in academia. The way that you're feeling is sadly very common among graduate students in relation to supervisors and dissertation committees. And new scholars at their first job, in relation to mature scholars. And mature scholars in relation to the administration.
You have to have a tough skin in academia. For a variety of reasons, academics are not a uniformly happy lot. They live in a power hierarchy governed by politics where the people at bottom are not always treated well. I have seen people's careers threatened by others who preferred to sabotage rather than support them.
I'm sure this occurs across all kinds of work, but conditions for academics have gotten worse under neoliberal economic policies that led to cuts in university funding, delegating much of the teaching load to underpaid adjuncts, and a lack of open tenure-track positions. People who feel undervalued pass their resentment off onto the people under them.
What can you do about it? Be tough. Don't let criticism get you down. Translate it into strategies for improvement. Stay positive. Do your best possible work. Ask for clarification and suggestions when you're criticized. Show a sincere desire to improve and ask for feedback to see how you're doing.
Know the difference between supportive criticism, unwarranted grouchiness, and abuse. You do have a right to be supported by your supervisor. The fit between you and your supervisor is important. Personally I wouldn't tolerate a cold, critical supervisor. I would find someone with the qualities that make graduate students feel confident and motivated.
You could always just say to the supervisor, "I sense that you don't really enjoy working with me. Is that something we could discuss, to make sure this is going to work well for both of us?"