I am filling out a job application, which asks to attach a "sample of current scholarship."
What is this?
I am guessing this means something like a published paper, but as a new PhD graduate, does the thesis count?
"Scholarship" is effectively a synonym for "research". Send something like:
a published paper
a preprint of an unpublished paper
your thesis, or one or more chapters from it
Your advisor may have advice as to what would be best.