I have found this document about European standards for higher education: https://www.enqa.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/ESG_2015.pdf
The criteria are not as strict as I maybe expected, a lot of it sounds pretty reasonable like “you should have qualified staff” and “you should provide clear information”.
Does that mean a program gets certified as a Bachelor’s degree subjectively, by a reviewer observing its plan and execution, or is there a neater formula for what gets approved or not? For example, how do they decide that the curriculum is acceptable? What’s an example of an unacceptable curriculum and which guideline for certification does it violate?