Since there's quite a few online or virtual (i.e. not in person) conferences happening these days (e.g. the 2020 AGU Fall Meeting), what do people use for the 'Location' field in a full citation? Section 10.5 of the APA7 style guide says:

Provide the name of the conference or meeting and its location in the source element of the reference.

I've seen people use 'online' or 'virtual' for the location, but is it ok to just leave out the conference location and put down the conference name itself in this case? Or is there a better way?

Example of a non-online conference citation to use:

Evans, A. C., Jr., Garbarino, J., Bocanegra, E., Kinscherff, R. T., & Márquez-Greene, N. (2019, August 8–11). Gun violence: An event on the power of community [Conference presentation]. APA 2019 Convention, Chicago, IL, United States. https://convention.apa.org/2019-video

where the Conference Name is 'APA 2019 Convention' and the location (City, State, Country) is 'Chicago, IL, United States'. If it's an online Conference, should we use something like 'APA 2019 Convention, virtual.' or an alternative format?


  • This should depend on where do you publish. "Xxxyyy 2020, date" seems a good identifier, to me.
    – Alchimista
    Commented Feb 23, 2021 at 11:59


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