We turn to the medical literature, particularly hospital epidemiology, which has a lot of corporate funding relative to federal funding.
Example 1 (http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/674394?origin=JSTOR-pdf):
E.T.L. has received research grant support from Merck. D.J.A. participates on the speaker’s bureau of and has received research grant support from Merck. All other authors report no conflicts of interest relevant to this article. All authors submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest, and the conflicts that the editors consider relevant to this article are disclosed here.
Example 2 (http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1086/658944?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents):
Potential conflicts of interest. E.R.D. reports that he has performed research for Viropharma and Merck and has served as a consultant for Merck, Becton-Dickinson, Optimer, Meridian, and Steris. All other authors report no conflicts of interest relevant to this article.
Generally speaking, the ICMJE asks about any sort of financial relationship that may be thought of as potentially influencing the results of the study, including board membership, consulting, expert testimony, grants, speakers bureaus, payment for manuscript prep., patents, royalties, stock, travel outside the project, etc.
It doesn't necessarily alter the review process, but reviewers are provided with the COI, and it has, in at least one paper I've read, put the results in context. I imagine for particular egregious examples, it could pose a problem. It's also a mandatory disclaimer at the beginning of almost all conference presentations in the field.