Presumably, both possible conclusions have arguments backing them up. (If they don't, then neither "Co-author A thinks results mean x" nor "co-author B thinks they mean y but not x" belongs in a published paper.)
All co-authors should agree that these arguments are valid, even if they disagree about which ultimately carries the day. If they disagree that an argument makes sense, this is not a problem that can be fixed by having only one co-author sign their name to part of a paper. If you see a flaw in your co-author's work, you should point out the flaw, and work with them until it is fixed!
I will give an example from mathematics, which I feel most comfortable talking about. Perhaps there is heuristical evidence for Conjecture X: it can be shown to hold for almost all randomly chosen objects. Co-author A is convinced by this; co-author B points out that such and such obstacles could appear in very unlikely cases. Maybe each author can point to examples of other problems where the equivalent conjecture turned out to be true or false.
Both co-authors should agree that the argument about random objects holds water. Both co-authors should agree that a certain kind of obstacle could invalidate the conjecture. Both co-authors should agree that the examples of other problems are referenced correctly. So there is no reason why both co-authors can't stand behind both sides of the argument, even if they disagree about which conclusion is likelier.
It might make sense to mention that the co-authors disagree about the conjecture, because this makes it clear to the reader that the issue is very far from settled. Which author thinks what shouldn't be persuasive to the reader, but it might be worth mentioning anyway; maybe the reader will write to one of the authors to debate the conjecture.
It would be inappropriate for a co-author to put their name down on one side of the argument in an effort "to get exclusive credit for their own ideas". This is no different from writing "although this paper is by authors A, B, and C, author B didn't help at all with proving Theorem 3."