Yes, this happens many times. I have observed this generally happens if teacher is either young or new (might not be true but it is my observation, other experienced teacher here can shed light on this observation). Also this can be characteristic of that person as you mentioned. I would suggest first check if questions you (or others) asking are valid. I mean are they really not following in second category you mentioned.
Immediately answers with, that's what we just covered
Or wait for some time and see if it is not following in first category,
Immediately answers with, just a minute, we're going to cover that
If these doesn't satisfy and he/she is falling into third category,
Spends a couple sentences briefly explaining why the student's question doesn't apply / doesn't work
Then meet his/her personally after class and clarify your doubt. May be that person didn't understand your question correctly. It is also possible that sometimes some teachers become offensive if they can't answer your question and they might take this approach. In this case he/she might search for answer and get back to you later on. I had professor who has done similar thing where he answered abruptly and tell that student's question is not valid. However after 2-3 days, he mentioned this question again in class and said he was confused. He gave correct answer that time. I liked his attitude. He actually apologized that he misunderstood and then he researched on this for 2 days and finally answered !!
Even after that you think that person is doing this again and again then you can first talk to his/her fellow professors who do you think can understand students better. I guess there is always some professor with whom students talks freely. We had one such professor who actually was aware of all student matters better than us (He even knew who is dating whom :P). Your last resort will be head of your academics. You can talk to him/her and explain situation. You can take few representative students with you also. Then head of academics can handle things further and will take appropriate decisions.