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In Germany and Spain, if you're a PhD student who gets paid via assisting professors in their projects, typically the position is regarded as Research Assistant. I rarely see who wrote it down in CV as Research Fellow, while research associate sounds more of a postdoc.


Nordic countries I have never used my title as a title and I have only used another's title as a title in a playful way with a close friend. Titles might be appropriate when introducing a speaker or an expert, for example in the context of news. Experience from Finland and a bit less in Norway and Denmark, but not from Iceland. Interpolating to Sweden is ...


A lot of answers about US, which seems the focus of the question. So... Germany Except those, who got their PhD in the US, the actual German title is "Dr.", in most cases something like "Dr. rer. nat.", "Dr.-Ing.", or "Dr. med.". As a professorship includes the doctoral title in 99% of cases, but is not obliged to, the ...


I think this varies by country. In the US there seems to be some unwritten rule that it is only used in a professional context(?). In Germany, it is much more restrictive and regulated. In the UK, it can be used in both professional and social context, but in practice no one really uses it. I am about to be conferred my PhD from the UK, and I almost never ...

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