You can't do much in China. China is a dictatorship, and it appears to have a national policy of hacking businesses to steal their code and data. No reason to expect them to respect your rights to your PhD thesis.
As you say that your advisor works for a UK university, you might be able to do something there. I have no idea if that's a good idea or not. Similarly, if anyone tries to claim rights to your invention outside of China, it's possible you could do something.
Lastly, while certainly suspicious, I wouldn't take it as proven that your advisor was responsible, at least not based on what you've written.