Questions tagged [academic-history]

Regarding inquiries into the evolution and development of academia as an institution from a historical perspective.

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166 views

Did any of the social science experiments by the Nazis in WWII get published?

I've read that the Nazi's did a lot of cruel experimentation on Jews during WWII. I was wondering if any of these studies were published, and if they still exist. Preferably available in English.
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Why is the citation system so archaic? [duplicate]

I am puzzled why citation is still so archaic for academic research papers. It seems to me that all you need to cite a journal or a textbook is three things Names of the authors Date of publication ...
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Are translation journals still a thing?

In the second half of the 20th century there were a large number of English-language journals published in the West that carried only translations by Western academics of Russian-language articles. ...
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When did citation counts emerge as indicators of academic impact?

As we know, today, citations of an academic get lots of attentions about whether his research is impfactful. I am just wondering what is the history of citation numbers becoming this important? When ...
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Examples of top academics who weren't prodigies [closed]

I'm looking for examples of people who are at the very top of their fields who weren't child prodigies, and followed quite a "normal" path in life (high school > college > grad school) before finding ...
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What is the meaning of the title “Akad. Orat”?

What is the meaning of the German academic title "Akad. Orat"? What would its international analogous be?
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Is it possible to access referee reports for investigating scientific history?

Do most journals keep archives of referee reports and would historians of science be able to access them? Perhaps after some delay?
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When did “Publish or Perish” first become a thing?

Related: What does "Publish or perish" really mean? The issue of "Publish or Perish" is pretty much an accepted reality in Academia nowadays. When I look at history, however, I see that the ...
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Why did it become so much more expensive to start a university?

In 1873, Johns Hopkins University was started with an inflation-adjusted $144.5 million. In 1884, Stanford University began with an inflation-adjusted $139 million. Meanwhile, in 2009, KAUST was ...
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How did Milton Babitt teach math at Princeton and research math, without an undergraduate degree in math?

Even if Babbitt taught merely elementary calculus, don't universities hire someone with at least an undergraduate degree in math to teach it? I quote Schoenblog.com: Babbitt came to teach at ...
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Could one become a successful researcher by writing some really good papers while being outside academia?

Would it still be possible today to go from relatively unknown to a respected figure in physics by writing some spectacular papers being outside the academia? (Just like Einstein did)
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How did researchers find articles before the Internet and the computer era?

I find it hard to write a literature review, even though I have Google, the Internet, and all free, very easy to search for information tools. I have to search for days to find a piece of information ...
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Why bioRxiv instead of arXiv.bio?

In view of the need of a preprint repository for biology science, why was it necessary to start bioRxiv, instead of a biology section in arXiv? Is there any fundamental difference between the two? ...
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Why/how APA was chosen as a standard for many fields?

My background is in mathematics where we write papers to the style guide of the particular journal, often similar to that of the largest organizations like the AMS or the MAA. I was a little ...
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Getting a W on your transcript for grad school applications

I am a Computer Engineering major at a top 15 engineering school. My goal is to get into grad school for Machine Learning. I have set very lofty goals and am aiming for places like MIT, Berkeley, ...
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When and why did journal article titles become descriptive, rather than creatively allusive?

In 1926, the article titled “On a certain minimal problem” was published. Nobody could guess what it was about, from the title alone. Nowadays, one may expect something more descriptive, such as "...
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How to cite primary source first found in secondary source?

I have the following situation (I am in the humanities): I am writing a paper. In that paper, I several times cite a particular scholar's book. Now, in that book, this scholar cites (not quotes) a ...
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272 views

What are the implications for academia, if the average IQ is and keeps falling? [closed]

I read a dossier in a newspaper about the falling of the IQ. For decades the IQ was increasing, known as the Flynn-Effect. My question here is not, if the IQ is really falling, make up your own mind ...
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Which kinds of academic revolutions has philosophy of science indentified so far and when?

Recently, I had an interdisciplinary discussion with some friends about Industry 4.0, internet of things,...which brought up the question, which kind of academic revolutions apart from industrial ...
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How were the figures in old pre-TeX research papers and books created?

If you see old pre-TeX-era classic research papers, technical articles and books the figures still look pretty good. They seem to be hand drawn but with some components of computerization. For ...
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Publishing research using outdated methods

I'm currently an Economics MA student doing a referee report on a paper that employs a dated empirical method. This particular method was originally created in 1980 but then improved upon in 1998 by ...
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Are there apart from single, double-blind… review other common categories focusing choice/number of reviewers [closed]

A current question here reminded me on the Sokal affair/hoax initiated by physicist Alan Sokal in 1996 by publishing a nonsense article in an social journal. I am wondering whether this triggered any ...
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Was there ever a time in American history when humanities PhDs were more sought after than STEM PhDs?

Was there ever a time in American history when there was greater interest in a humanities PhD, say, a PhD in Philosophy or Creative Writing, than a STEM PhD? Perhaps during the period of time ...
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What is the etymology of “Assistant Professor”?

In the US, "Assistant Professor" is a junior rank among permanent university faculty. Generally, Assistant Professors are independent researchers with more or less the same job responsibilities as ...
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Name of a fictional scientist with fictional publications invented and ‘working’ at an existing British university

At some British university a fictional professor was invented in the 20th century. He also had is own office and his own (fictional) field of research, in which he published about three papers (in a ...
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When was the Bachelor degree of Occupational Therapy introduced in Australia?

Sounds like a simple question, but despite a few hours of searching, I couldn't find the answer. I would also like to know what qualification was required beforehand in order to work in that ...
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Why was Roy Fielding's thesis on REST not adopted immediately? [closed]

Roy Fielding's thesis ( Architectural Styles and the Design of Network-based Software Architectures ) was not implemented/adopted immediately, was there any specific reason for this ? The thesis was ...
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Were predatory journals widespread before publishers of reputable journals introduced the “author pays” model?

After reading yet another news article about predatory journals/conferences and how they weigh on the finances of labs in some countries, I started to wonder the following. Were they widespread before ...
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What was graduate admissions like before the electronic age?

On the applicant side, did admissions require the same documents as today? Also, since gathering the required documents presumably took longer (especially for an applicant who had already graduated), ...
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Have technical reports been subsumed by preprints?

As someone who has recently gotten into the research world, I read a lot of preprints and occasionally dig up some technical reports to access older publications. To me, it seems like technical ...
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344 views

Creating bibliographies, 25 years ago

I'm interested in the academic history of creating a bibliographic reference list. The time period is early 1990s. I want to understand how former researchers have done their writing. Introduction ...
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491 views

Peer-review in the year 2000

For a new paper about media archaeology in the context of scientific publication, I found an interesting topic which is not very well researched yet. As far as I know from research, in the year 2000 ...
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In recent academic history, why has research funding increasingly focused upon large interdisciplinary teams?

As noted in Derek Bok's "Higher Education in America," there is a trend in increased funding for large interdisciplinary research programs since the 1970's (Think NSF MRSEC, for example). What is the ...
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Is an academic degree an honor, a title, or both?

For example: Do graduates receive a Bachelor of Arts degree or become a Bachelor of Arts? Are Bachelor degrees grammatically and/or etymologically distinct from advanced degrees? I note that the ...
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May I call Samuel Johnson a PhD?

According to Wikipedia, Samuel Johnson was awarded an honorary doctorate in 1765 by Trinity College Dublin and in 1775 by Oxford University. Also, apparently people referred to him as "Dr Johnson" ...
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Confused about bibliography in old books

I’ve been looking at the bibliography of an old book called History Of Burma by G. E. Harvey and am quite confused. There are abbreviations introduced first like this: B Bodleian Library BM ...
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History of mega-collaborations

Curiosity spurred by this recent question: what were the first mega-collaboration papers (hundreds/thousands of authors)? Which institution/project/experiment started them? How were they received at ...
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Are there any undergraduate research/internship opportunities in math/science education/history? [closed]

(Apologies if this isn't the right place for such a post. I see lots of advice for undergraduates hoping to pursue research in math and science, but haven't come across anything for the "soft" stuff ...
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What is the highest degree held by Freeman Dyson?

I recently learned that eminent physicist Freeman Dyson does not have a doctoral degree. Does he have a graduate (magistrate) degree though? Or can he be described as a highly successful graduate-...
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When did English come to lead in published research?

As any modern student knows, nearly all published research these days is in English. That's just the way of the world. But it didn't used to be that way. Many of the most pivotal pieces of scientific ...
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Did conferences have poster sessions before PCs were widespread?

At modern scientific conferences (at least in my field), poster sessions are a very important part of the conference. Most posters are prepared by the authors using modern computer software which may ...
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What is the reason that once a student has passed a university course, the student cannot take the course again?

This question geared towards STEM but can definitely be expanded for courses in the arts as well. Imagine the following scenarios: A student has taken a course, but passed the course with barely a ...
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A quote that one has to be rich to engage in science?

I remember reading an article (in popular magazine I think) that attributed to de Tocqueville a quote along the lines of: To engage in science, one has to own a farm. meaning that a person has to ...
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Who funded research before 1800?

The Von Humboldt model of a university came about in the early 1800's. Von Humboldt's thought that the fundamental purpose of the university was to promote scientific inquiry and to unify teaching and ...
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White supremacists marching at the University of Virginia – does this reflect the university’s attitude?

White supremacist groups have been marching down in Charlottesville, Virginia, at the University of Virginia (article). Does this also in some ways reflect on the university itself for allowing the ...
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Is a high school diploma an academic degree?

In the USA, a high school diploma is often considered a different kind of qualification than a degree. This kind of idea is also expressed in the Academia.SE question Is it possible for a high school ...
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Has anyone, based on great performance, ever been awarded a higher degree than the one they enrolled for?

Out of curiosity, I was wondering if anyone, historically, has ever been awarded a degree that was a level higher than the one they were enrolled in and studying for, simply because their performance ...
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Why older papers are more difficult to read than the new ones?

Skimming through the literature, I find that in theoretical high-energy physics (modern gravitation theories, scalar tensor theories, etc.), older papers are more difficult to read than new papers ...
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What is the purpose of peer-review in journals?

I am interested in what is the role of peer review in journals. I have read the wikipedia page which discuss much about style and criticism but few to purpose. I don't know if initially it already ...
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Why are researchers at some think tanks titled professor?

Within my own discipline one of the best examples of this may be at the Santa Fe Institute, but I've seen this other places as well. Quite simply, why are researchers at some think tanks titled "...