In a article I saw this expression:

... initial sample (cfr. Härdle et al. (2004))...

What is the meaning of cfr. or does it stands for?


1 Answer 1


Cfr is the abbreviation of the Latin imperative confer, which means compare with. The common English abbreviation is cf.

Your citation can be found in this document, which is written by a Spanish group. A search of the Oxford Spanish Dictionary yields:


1 Abreviatura del imperativo latino confer, 'compara' o 'consulta', que se utiliza en escritos para remitir a un párrafo o libro que contiene información relacionada con el tema tratado.


También se abrevia cfr

The last sentence tells you that in Spanish cf is sometimes abbreviated as cfr.

  • @aeismail Thanks,and let me thank you for the other edits: being a non-native English speaker I appreciate edits that improve my writing. Usually, I use "see" too, but I'm not totally against the usage of expressions coming from different languages (e.g., from Latin, French, Spanish or German): I love expanding my vocabulary in any direction! Nov 22, 2017 at 22:21
  • @MassimoOrtolano I see what you did there with the e.g.,.
    – StrongBad
    Nov 22, 2017 at 23:26
  • 2
    @StrongBad Funnily enough, as a kid, I was terrible at grammar and writing, with abysmal grades. Now I spend my time correcting student's writings - in Italian and English - and arguing about grammar and usage on the net. It's probably a clear example of the Dunning-Kruger effect or of contrappasso. Nov 23, 2017 at 1:42

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