I am currently writing my thesis which is on a relatively new topic and as such literature is limited and I have to take note of a lot of developments that are popping up as internet articles.

Do these go as footnotes rather than the bibliography? When should I put a reference as a footnote rather than a bibliography?


  1. A news article
  2. A simple website such as microsoft.com
  3. A PDF published by an authority
  4. A scholarly article

So far I was placing 1-3 in the footnotes and 4 as bibliography (which is short)

Should references be separated or can everything go in the bibliography?

  • Ask your supervisor.
    – Bob Brown
    Commented Oct 23, 2017 at 19:40
  • This was an excellent question, in my opinion, it's a pity that has been closed.
    – G M
    Commented Jan 30, 2019 at 9:18
  • unfortunately there is an authoritarian way as to how questions are handled on StackExchange websites (not only here), and many moderators think the opinion of the posters is beneath them, as you can see from Bob Brown's reply. if they decide it is 'off topic', they will close it no matter how legitimate your question might be.
    – DottoreM
    Commented Jan 30, 2019 at 13:04

1 Answer 1


This should be guided by 1. your institution's requirements for your thesis; 2. the standards of the citation guide referenced by your institution.

For example, most colleges have an Office of Graduate Studies to whom the final thesis must be submitted for final approval and archiving. They will have a "style guide" that includes rules about citations. These rules could indicate, for instance, the Chicago Manual style, APA, or Harvard citation style, which in turn will tell you how to handle the on-line articles.

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