Here is how it works at my US institution. (I know that some other US institutions have similar systems, and my impression is that this is in fact typical in the US.)
When hired as an Assistant Professor, the job offer includes a mandatory date for latest possible tenure consideration, normally in the sixth year of the position. (Ninth year for clinical faculty in professional schools.) An Assistant Professor can apply for tenure and promotion in any year before that; if they are unsuccessful they can remain in the position and apply for tenure again, up until that latest possible date. If they are unsuccessful at getting tenure at the latest possible date, they get one more year in the position then have to leave.
So in theory, an Assistant Professor could apply for tenure over and over again through that six-year period. In practice, that would be a terrible idea. Most people apply for tenure only once at a given institution, and leave for another institution if they're unsuccessful. I don't believe I've personally ever heard of someone applying more than twice for tenure at a given institution.