I read the biography of a French-born scientist-turned-entrepreneur Philippe Kahn. It says that Philippe Kahn received the “French equivalent of a Ph.D. certified by the French Academy of Sciences”.
I discovered an article about Kahn which says that he earned the equivalent of a doctorate, but not the degree. In yet another article, I read that he holds an agregation de mathematiques, and this is the French equivalent of a doctorate. I am rather baffled at all this, since Wikipedia clearly indicates that agregation has nothing to do with the equivalent of a doctorate. Can you explain what Kahn's biographers mean by “the French equivalent of a Ph.D.”? And if this is the degree then why should it be certified by the academy? So far I have come to conclusion that by the equivalent they mean the D.E.A. degree