I need to read an article that is in Russian.

The article is located here, and the PDF is freely downloadable. The journal is very well known in my area of research (Topology) and publishes almost everything in English, just not that paper apparently.

What is the best way to translate it? That particular PDF will not allow me to select the text, so I can't even copy and paste into Google translate (even then, it is an arduous process and requires an additional interpretive translation on my part).

How would you do it? Are there any services I can pay to translate it?

EDIT: I checked some translating services, and it looks like it will be too costly (in the hundreds of dollars). So I need tools to do it myself...

  • Find an English article citing this paper and contact its authors to ask whether they have a translation. – FuzzyLeapfrog Jul 1 '17 at 22:18
  • @FuzzyLeapfrog that's good I'll try emailing a couple of people – Forever Mozart Jul 1 '17 at 22:59

Find a student who is fluent in russian and pay them? I've translated (relevant parts of) german arcticles for my US colleagues before, in that case actually for free but I'm pretty sure students are happy to help and will help in this case for small compensation.

It would also be easier, since you can sit down together and go through the text, since there might be difficulties with translating correctly without fully understanding the topic.

In addition, Adobe Acrobat Pro is able to extract the text of this pdf quite well since it's in very nice quality.


I think google translate is not a good idea because you need the meaning of your text but the program can't translate it. I suggest using deepl program and you change the meaning of each sentence and you must fellowing the purpose of your paper.


If you value cost over quality

Run the PDF through OCR (optical character recognition) software, then paste it to Google translate.

If you value quality over cost

Hire a freelance translator on any popular freelancer site. A fee of $100 -- $200 is reasonable for the article you link. Try to find freelancers who are math students: they have a good command of the terminology, and the cost could be somewhat lower.

  • 2
    I would have very little hope that a translator who is not a mathematician would produce a reasonable translation. – Arno Jul 1 '17 at 21:35

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