ACM requires author-year-style citations but I have several references such as web pages that have neither an identifiable author and don't state their year of publication. How should I cite such documents?

  • This qustion has nothing to do with academia and should be closed. However the answer can be found here: tex.stackexchange.com/questions/3587/…
    – Coder
    Jun 16, 2017 at 17:20
  • 4
    @Coder If the question is "how should the citation look like" and not "how do I achieve this in Latex", it seems OK here to me. Jun 16, 2017 at 17:24
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    @FedericoPoloni Then, I don't think the question is pretty clear and presently it has many different interpretations. If it is the latter, then it should be migrated to tex.SE (I suppose).
    – Coder
    Jun 16, 2017 at 17:44
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    My suggestion to improve this question is to move the question into the body of the text. It's distracting not having what you are really asking in the body of the question and leaves your problem up for interpretation. The title isn't for questions, but for brief statement of what you need. A better title might be "ACM arcmart citation". Jun 16, 2017 at 20:17
  • Please don't include complaints about the reaction to your question in the question itself, and please don't put "update:" in your post. Just edit the post so it addresses the misunderstandings people have about your question. Jun 16, 2017 at 20:37

1 Answer 1


The ACM's guidelines give the following examples of how to format a bibliography entry for a website:

Website year can be found at the bottom of the website page or by viewing page properties/source to see when the page was last modified.

[1] Harry Thornburg. 2001. Introduction to Bayesian Statistics. (March 2001). Retrieved March 2, 2005 from http://ccrma.stanford.edu/~jos/bayes/bayes.html

[2] ACM. Association for Computing Machinery: Advancing Computing as a Science & Profession. Retrieved from http://www.acm.org/.

[3] Wikipedia. 2017. Wikipedia: the Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved from https://www.wikipedia.org/.

I'm not sure why [2] doesn't have a date. Although that page only covers numerical citations, I think it's reasonable to infer that author-year citations for [1] and [3] would be (Thornburg, 2001) and (Wikipedia, 2017).

APA says to use "n.d." for "no date"; I'd be tempted to either use "undated" or use the date you accessed the page (but make it clear that's what you're doing, in that case). I've also seen papers that cite websites using footnotes and only put fully citable things like papers, books and theses in the bibliography.

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