I'm wondering if my schools' departmental advisers can give my grades to faculty members without my permission.
Yes. The school's own policies will determine how, when, where and why. Your permission is never required for communications about you within any school between faculty, staff and officials as long as it is pertinent to their job.
Say a faculty member is talking to the department advisers about me. What is standard procedure here?
The procedure is school specific and will usually be spelled out in either the faculty handbook or employee handbook. You will not be able to access either of these as you are neither.
It would be unusual for faculty to not talk to advisors about students, although that partly depends upon how the role of "advisor" is defined. It is common for faculty to be required to provide to advisors any form of academic warning regarding students. Let me give you a simple example. Imagine you were taking "Introduction to Microeconomics," and were struggling with the algebra. In many schools, the professor would inform the advisor that the student should take appropriate math courses in future semesters. How can they give advice if they do not know what is going on?
It also goes in the other direction, an advisor that became aware of an issue with the student should, where appropriate, pass that information on to the faculty teaching that student.