The usual disclaimer that Europe is a big place and that it's impossible to give a general answer.
In France, there exist teaching-only positions in universities. They are known by the abbreviations "PRAG" and "PRCE", meaning respectively "Professeur agrégé" and "Professeur certifié". I've written an answer about them for another question, but the question was closed.
Here's a summary. To get this kind of position, you must first obtain a national examination. For PRAG you need to obtain the "agrégation", which is a national competition (people are ranked and a better rank helps getting a better position). For PRCE you need to obtain the "certification", a national exam.
But make no mistake. These two exams are usually for people looking to teach in middle and high schools. PRAG and PRCE positions are few and far between, and there is a lot of competition for them. Once you get your agrégation or certification, then you will need to teach in middle/high school first before having any kind of chance of getting the PRAG/PRCE position. You will have to wait for an opening, and compete with a lot of people. If you refuse to teach in school, you will lose your status and need to pass the exams again. Also, speaking French is mandatory. I would say you need to want to teach in France more than anything to even consider getting such a position.
The upshot is that these are permanent positions. The pay is okay I guess. The ministry has some info. For a certified professor, you start at 1795€ gross salary the first year, and after 30 years you can rise to 3777€. For an "agrégé", you start at 2076€, and after 30 years you rise to 4555€.
(The first kind of position is not to be confused with professors who have obtained the "agrégation du supérieur", in law, political sciences, economy, or management. These professors have a position equivalent to other "usual" university professors and statutorily dedicate half their time to teaching and half to research. Yes, the terminology is confusing.)
A completely different alternative is to become "maître de conférences associé" (adjunct lecturer) or "professeur associé" (adjunct professor). This is a part-time position for people who have some professional experience (7 years for lecturer, 9 years for professor), or alternatively a high enough degree (PhD at least). You would keep your main job and teach in the university part-time. It's also possible to be recruited on such a position full-time. In all cases it's temporary, three years maximum.
I am not certain what the recruitment procedure is like, in particular I don't know if universities advertise for openings or if you have to apply on your own. It seems to me that everything is fully at the discretion of the university/department. The ministry has some information.
Perhaps a point worth stressing is that these are mostly exceptions. I haven't met many PRAG/PRCE or heard of many openings. For adjunct teachers, the "exceptional" nature is even clearer (it's a temporary position for industry people who want to teach). The "norm" are the half-teaching/half-research positions and the research-only positions (which are somewhat rarer).