If a professor in a North American country presents his- or herself by his/her first name in email messages, does this mean that students can refer to him/her by his/her first name? Or is this generally not a good idea, unless the professor has explicitly mentioned that he/she can be referred to by first name? I've noticed that most professors, who prefer to be referred to more formally, do not sign their emails with just their first names, but usually initials or first and last name.

  • 13
    This question has been addressed before, for example here and here. The safest answer is to continue formally addressing your professor unless you have asked them otherwise; signing emails with their first name suggests that you can ask them but doesn't necessarily mean you should switch without asking.
    – Bryan Krause
    Commented Feb 3, 2017 at 21:46
  • 1
    @BryanKrause I've heard at least one student from my class call him by his first name. But probably it's still better to ask the prof. That's a bit confusing.
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 2:09
  • 2
    @sequence: You mean address him with “professor” in a non-public setting (ilke his office, email)? On the floor that I work on, the policy seems to be that if you have an office, you are on first names with everyone. I've written an email to a professor who is not my supervisor with “Dear Professor” and he eventually came to my office and told me (with a laugh) to address him by his first name. I said that this way it is easy for me to become less formal, I just wanted to avoid being too informal. I still have not figured out the perfect way to refer to the professors when addressing students. Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 19:17
  • 1
    In grad school, I called my research advisor and most professors by first name. As an undergrad I never did, even when they would sign their emails with their first names. In fact, my undergrad research advisors and professors, even after all these years, when I speak to them (mostly exchanging emails), I always address them the way I had always addressed them (i.e. Professor, Dr.).
    – Mars
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 1:38
  • 2
    @E.P. the "arrogance" part is malperceived. I really do not know the difference between the figure of a professor in Mexico and one in the US or Canada. And I do not see why the size of Greenland as compared to Mexico should matter in this respect. Actually your part about Greenland sounds disrespectful of Greenland, as if its size somehow made it unimportant in this respect.
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 20:46

10 Answers 10


If you are a foreigner, then you can just ask. Most academics are used to deal with foreigners and know that such subtle and unwritten rules are hard to know. They recognize that just asking is often the least awkward solution.

  • 6
    I'd have to agree, just ask. I've been called Dr Richard before and it's just annoying. If they must call me Dr I'd want to hear my last name given local cultural norms/it sounding grammatical incorrect. After asking they realise hey can just use my first name without any mention of title at all. Commented Feb 3, 2017 at 22:06
  • 4
    @RichardKavanagh In some countries, "Richard Kavanagh" would mean that "Richard" is your family name and "Kavanagh" your given name, so "Dr Richard" would be "normal".
    – alephzero
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 2:23
  • 1
    @alephzero: exactly. And, in those countries, they wouldn't expect me to apply foreign rules to local names. Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 4:59
  • 2
    @MartinArgerami, I think alephzero's point was that the foreigners may not actually know the difference in naming conventions. Perhaps not a likely scenario in reality, but still possible. The "they" in your hypothetical wouldn't expect you to apply foreign rules to local names, but it's only a reasonable expectation if you know how the local rules differ from the foreign.
    – user51076
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 5:39
  • 9
    @RichardKavanagh - I hope you don't just stay annoyed, I hope, instead, you let them know your preferences. Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 6:16

Just ask.

It doesn't matter if you're a foreigner or a native, asking someone how they would like to be addressed is not rude or unusual. The answer will vary from person to person, some like having their title used, some like being addressed on a first name basis and (very rarely) some may prefer a nickname.

It is much better that you ask and are sure rather than being confused, and the professor (asuming they are a rational, decent human being) will understand that.

  • 4
    You will never give offense by honestly asking how to avoid giving offense.
    – keshlam
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 5:26

It is always safe to ask. Throughout my undergrad and grad career, all my professors have always asked their students to call them by their first name. Some professors say this is because they respect you and because they don't address you as "Mr/Miss Smith", then you shouldn't address them as "Prof. Smith". Other professors explain it's because everyone is an adult and you wouldn't call your boss "Mr/Miss Smith".

  • 10
    Culture-dependent, again! In some countries, if you called your boss "Mr Smith" you would get a very frosty response if he was "Dr Smith," not plain "Mr."
    – alephzero
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 2:27
  • 2
    In some places, if you call a consultant (medical) a Dr, they might not like it too, as their title on becoming a consultant becomes Mr again. Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 8:56

"Dear Prof. Smith - I noticed you signed your last e-mail to me, "Jim." Does that mean I should call you by your first name? Are there circumstances when that would be appropriate or inappropriate, such as with undergraduates or outside the lab?

I apologize for asking, but I'm unfamiliar with American academic protocol here.

Yours sincerely, Xxx


If a professor in a North American country presents his- or herself by his/her first name in email messages, does this mean that students can refer to him/her by his/her first name?

Only in some situations. You can be relatively certain that you can reply to his/her email and say "Hello Alice/Bob, I noticed you said X but what about Y?" . However, in a "Reply All" to that same message you can't make that assumption. You can't make the assumption about speaking to her/him in class. etc.

Or is this generally not a good idea...

Unfortunately, there is no "generally" in this matter. As others have indicated - if not absolutely certain, ask.

... unless the professor has explicitly mentioned that he/she can be referred to by first name?

It is not very likely that someone will explicitly tell you how to address him/her. Not many people make the effort to consider this finer point and actually instruct students on how to address them in different contexts. Also, it's might feel a bit vain to them to tell other people "refer to me as Professor X"; it's like you're expected to defer to them in that sense rather than have them tell you to do it. Which means it can be hard sometimes to realize what's the proper form of address (and whose propriety standard you should be adhering to).

I've noticed that most professors, who prefer to be referred to more formally, do not sign their emails with just their first names, but usually initials or first and last name.

Now that's a good indication - in the other direction. That is, if you get this kind of email, stick to "Professor X" unless told otherwise.

  • I've heard one student refer to a professor by his first name, and it was in a public setting. So maybe I missed something from a lecture, probably the first one, where he might have given that introduction.
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 19:13
  • @sequence To refer to him without him present is sth else than addressing him.
    – Karl
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 23:25
  • @Karl I'm confused because at least one student calls him by his first name in front of other students. But another student addressed him as just "professor".
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 20:37

This depends highly on the culture (and language)

Address him as he addresses you

The most important part is not how he signed but how he addressed you.

So if he uses "Dear Mr." or whatever, use "Dear Prof.". If he uses "Hi Michael", use "Hi Simon". And so on. If he never addressed you directly, stay conservative.

Signing with his first name can happen by "incident" without thinking to much. Or because of other addressed people. It's a bad indication in general (but, of course, should be consistent with the addressing).

  • 15
    I don't know where you are from, but in my country professors address students by their first name but it would be very weird and impolite if students addressed them by their first name...I've never heard anyone do it.
    – lmc
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 19:22
  • 4
    It would be utterly bizzare to me for a professor to call me by my last name even in relationships where I still call them professor. At least in my neck of the woods, using my first name isn't an indication they want me to use theirs Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 23:14
  • 4
    The behaviour described in the answer is the common, western form between adults. Wether one regards undergrads as adults is a matter of taste, probably. ;-)
    – Karl
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 23:20
  • 1
    I disagree - referrents are a proxy for relative professional/social status. The formality of address in the salutation gives the sense of how the writer regards the recipient, which is not the same as how the writer expects the recipient to regard him/herself.
    – hBy2Py
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 15:51
  • 2
    @Mayou36 Interesting. I live in Southern Europe. I think we can now all agree that it all depends on culture. If I was OP I would just ask fellow students though.
    – lmc
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 17:30

If there's anything to suggest the professor signed the first name out of absent-mindedness, then hold off before responding with "Hi Sally."

Otherwise, you would be okay using the first name.

However, just because you can, doesn't mean you have to.

It's always fine to ask, if you're in any doubt. One need not be an international student to ask.

For example, in office hours, you could ask, "What do you like to go by with your students?" or "What would you like me to call you?"

Make sure to notice subtle signs of possible discomfort when he or she responds to a question like this. If the results are contradictory, you'll generally be safe with a somewhat formal approach.

  • I'm wondering if it will be appropriate to refer to him as "professor" (more formally) if I've already referred to him by his first name? Of course, it would be better to ask for his preference, but we meet in a public setting most of the time (with other students around).
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 4, 2017 at 19:08
  • @sequence - What do the other students call him? // When I'm at my thirteen-year-old's school, I call his teachers Mr. XX and Ms. YY in front of my son or other students. But if we're on our own in a conference room, or if I'm writing an email, I use the first name most of the time. I wait until they've indicated that first name basis is okay with them, for example by observing the person's tone in an email message. Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 1:34
  • I'm confused because at least one student calls him by his first name in front of other students. But another student addressed him as just "professor". @aparente001
    – sequence
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 20:36
  • 2
    When you get mixed signals like this, the safe thing is to go with the more formal option; it's generally okay to ask; keep in mind that the formal student might be going with the more formal mode because of his or her cultural upbringing, not because of something the professor said or didn't say. Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 20:44

I am a professor at a Swiss university. I have a lab with >30 members (neurosciences) and my policy is to stay formal with my MSc/PhD students and postdocs for the first few weeks. This is because sometimes things do not work out, and I find it easier to address difficult topics (particularly the prospect of termination) if there is a certain amount of formal distance between me and my coworkers. Over time, however, I offer to everybody that we go first-names. Interestingly, I have two (Italian) postdocs who expect me to address them by first name, yet have always refused (since several years) to address me by first name. They feel uncomfortable with that, they explained to me.

A big mistake that Swiss and German students often do, however, is to address Prof Einstein in English as "Mister Einstein". Call me old-fashioned (or worse), but that really does get on my nerves. If you go formal, then please call me Dr. xy. Or else be informal and call me by first name. But if you do go formal, please address me with my academic title. Particularly if it is a title that you do not (yet) possess!

  • 1
    Rather unusual, at least in Germany. The title is used in formal occasions (talking about the Dr. or Prof. to outsiders, during the first meetings, addressing him in front of an audience), but most Profs don't want to hear their title repeated to them eighty times per day. They hear it often enough by students in lectures.
    – Karl
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 22:48
  • 1
    Actually my last comment ("If you go formal, then please call me Dr. xy. Or else be informal and call me by first name. ") related to emails. I agree that the academic title is unnecessary in most oral communication.
    – aag
    Commented Feb 6, 2017 at 4:19
  • 3
    As a Swiss native student, I completely understand the "Mr./Mrs." "mistake" and made it myself in my early years. The reason behind this is very simple: in Switzerland (even more then in any other german-speaking country I think), people are not addressed by their title but rather as Mr. or Mrs. (which is, I think, a nice syndrome of an egalitarian society). This is completely different in English and it took me a while to realize that. From the German language, similar: "you + surname" = informal, "Mr. + last name" = formal and two adults use the same form if communicating with each other.
    – Mayou36
    Commented Feb 7, 2017 at 6:44

Here in the United States, in my experience modes of address in written communication are a proxy for the relative professional/social status of the individuals involved, as well as the level of familiarity in the relationship. Especially in an academic setting, the former can be somewhat hard to ascertain in some situations; the latter can be tricky, because if one party assumes too much familiarity where it's not desired by the other, awkwardness ensues.

I would break situations like that of the OP into three categories:

  1. An undergraduate student addressing a professor.
    Always address the professor as "Dr. X" or "Prof. X", unless the professor has explicitly invited you to do otherwise. Always. An undergraduate student always has inferior "professional status" to a professor, and so any sense of familiarity is pretty much irrelevant. The only exception may be if a particular student has either engaged that professor enough in office hours or in the context of a research project that the student's expertise and status has advanced to that similar to a graduate student.

  2. A graduate student addressing a non-advisor faculty member.
    Similar to #1, but the 'familiarity' aspect starts to become more important, especially as the graduate student advances along the Ph.D. program. Graduate students are on their way to becoming members of the professional research community, so their status is coming loosely in range of that of professors. Familiarity thus becomes more important, and if a student has engaged that professor in extended conversation about, e.g., course material, a first-name basis may be appropriate. In this kind of situation, if such a professor signs an email addressed specifically to the graduate student (i.e., not a general class email, for example) with his/her first name, especially on a repeated basis, then I would feel comfortable addressing the professor by first name, at least in an email. I would still hesitate a bit to address them by first name in person, at least until it seemed that no negative reaction was forthcoming from first-name address in emails.

  3. A graduate student addressing a faculty member in a direct advisory role.
    Very similar to #2, with the exception that familiarity with most advisors ends up developing quite rapidly (in my experience, at least). Thus, for all except the newest of students to the research group, as long as the professor is okay with being addressed by first name in general, the students they are advising end up calling them by first name after a very short period of time. As well, by the end of their tenure, most graduate students end up more knowledgeable about their specific research area than their advisor(s), almost completely eliminating the 'status' element of the situation.

In all of these cases, such first-name address will probably make the professor aware that the question of the propriety and/or preference in mode of address has arisen in the student's mind. Therefore, pay attention to how they sign future correspondence. If they change to "Dr. X", then stop using their first name, promptly!


I'm a professor. I have discussed this subject with many, many colleagues. Here is the consensus.

a) What to call the professor? As a rule, regardless of which country you are from or what a professor signs off on in his/her email, you should always continue addressing him/her as "Professor Lastname" in person, in email and in any other communications .... UNTIL that professor specifically asks you to do otherwise. The professor MAY ask you to call him/her something different. The professor MAY not correct you. As a default, call him/her Professor Lastname.

b) Can I ask the professor what he/she likes to be called? NO. Do not ask him/her about his/her preference. Why? Imagine that you are a medical doctor. You're been in school for many years, trained hard and despite all odds, succeeded in getting your medical degree. You of course will expect all patients, colleagues, interns, residents and others in the workplace to call you "Dr. Lastname." It would be odd for one of them to ask you if it's ok to call you something else. If you wanted to be called something else, you would probably say something.

It is the same for professors. Professors have worked many years and long hours to achieve their doctoral degrees. Addressing them by their appropriate title is the respectful and appropriate thing to do.

c) Should I really call EVERY professor "Professor Lastname"? Students tend to more frequently call professors who are not white men by their first name while calling their male, white professors "Professor Lastname". Do not fall victim to implicit bias. See point a) above. You should call EVERY professor - regardless of gender, ethnicity, nationality, etc. Trust me. They will appreciate it.

  • There is an important point missing in your answer: how do you, as a professor, call a student resp. how is that correlated to how you would like to be called? If you call someone by his "title", e.g. Mr./Mrs., I completely agree with your answer. But if you as a professor call another adult by it's first name instead of his title, why do you expect to be called by your title? On the other hand, it seems that you quite correlate the calling with respect. I don't think this is culturally given everywhere and may depends on the regions you're living.
    – Mayou36
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 10:41
  • 4
    I am a professor as well, and in fact I hold both a PhD and an MD - and I wholeheartedly disagree with b). I see absolutely nothing wrong or disrespectful with students asking the professor how he or she would like to be called. It happens often to me, and I am always ready to elaborate. This is particularly true in an international, diverse setting, as different cultures handle these issues in a variety of different ways.
    – aag
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 16:24
  • Disagree with (c). Or rather, that only happens in certain universities / departments, not in others.
    – einpoklum
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 21:39
  • 1
    This answer completely misses the point. The question was what to do when the prof is inconsistent in how he addresses his students, signs emails with his first name etc.
    – Karl
    Commented Feb 5, 2017 at 22:36

You must log in to answer this question.

Not the answer you're looking for? Browse other questions tagged .