My name is SALMAN. No Middle and Last name. How do I write my name in research paper or article?
You have two choices.
Either just use your given name, e.g., as in Matthew B. Dwyer, John Hatcliff, Robby, Venkatesh Prasad Ranganath: Exploiting Object Escape and Locking Information in Partial-Order Reductions for Concurrent Object-Oriented Programs. That has two advantages – it's formally and culturally correct – and two disadvantages – you will have to explain it to many people, and finding you in any search engine is awfully difficult.
Alternatively, invent some "first" name or initial, so for instance, you might publish as "S. Salman". That's formally incorrect, but probably more convenient in most situations.
Whatever you do, do it consistently. That's the most important recommendation.
Not everybody in the world fits into the western idea of first name, maybe middle name/names, last name.
Regardless of what your ID card says, you can publish your papers under whatever name you want. Some people use pseudonyms. Much more common is that many women continue to publish under their maiden name when they marry and change their surname.
There's no reason you can't publish papers as Salman.
Some mononymous professors:
As you can see, you are not alone. All these professors seem to be using their (single) name in publications. (No doubt there are others too, who have a single name, but use variant forms in publications.)
(Edit: These examples, along with examples of professors who have the same first and last names, are collected on the Improbable Research blog.)
A colleague of mine with a unique name uses his father's name as his "first" name (usually just the initial) for his publications.
In various systems, it is common practice to use the father's or mother's name for further disambiguation (e.g., Indian visa application form ask for that information).
The above choice transposes this practice into the first-name surname system and if I understood my colleague correctly is commonly used.
This is somewhat close to Uwe's second suggestion, except that you do not literally invent it, but rather follow a systematic way to assign it.
This might have the advantage that it is easier to explain the situation, than with an arbitrarily self-selected name.
A drawback that colleague mentioned is that sometimes he will be addressed by his "first" name, so his father's name.
An old lecturer of mine had this problem; he had stopped using his surname in his younger days, and all official paperwork referred to him by only one name. However he found, when it came to publishing papers, that many journals assumed his single name must be a middle name of another author on the paper. His solution was to use his name twice.
It also allowed him to make a joke along the lines of “so good they named me twice”.
You could use your father's name + "son" as your last name (or "daughter", "dottir", etc, with an S between, perhaps).
If, for example, your father were also named SALMAN, you could be SALMAN SALMANSON. Sounds great!
That in your case it is a literal description rather than a hereditary name or one assigned to you at birth is not a problem.