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I checked several answers online to this question, but they are all extremely vague. If my understanding is correct, both a research paper and a Master's thesis require to have original contribution to the field, but in what precise ways are they different? More clearly, since they both seem to be very similar documents and contain original research and contributions to the field, why do they differ in the following points:

  1. Usually, you can't publish a Master's thesis to a scientific journal?
  2. Why does a Master's thesis earn you a Master's degree and not a Phd, even though you have contributed something to the field?
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    Please ask one question per post - edit to specify exactly one question. The title of this post does not match either (1) or (2). (Question 2 is more like "what is the difference between a masters thesis and a PhD thesis?") Re (1), who said that you can't?
    – ff524
    Dec 28, 2016 at 17:45
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    I started to post this an answer: for the moment, I leave it as comment. A Master's thesis should usually contain some original work, but the level of originality might not be enough for the work to be publishable on a decent journal. And the level of originality required for a Master's thesis can vary across countries, institutions and advisors (there can be advisors that can be much more demanding than what would be strictly required by the university regulations). Who says you can't publish? This is certainly not true, and many people has published papers based on their Master's thesis.
    – Massimo Ortolano
    Dec 28, 2016 at 17:47
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    "Why does a Master's thesis earn you a Master's degree and not a Phd, even though you have contributed something to the field?": A PhD somehow certifies that you are able to conduct research with a level of independence which is not expected by a Master's graduate.
    – Massimo Ortolano
    Dec 28, 2016 at 17:47
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    Still contains different questions, with distinct answers. The answer to "Usually, you can't publish a Master's thesis to a scientific journal?" is totally independent from the answer to "Why does a Master's thesis earn you a Master's degree and not a Phd, even though you have contributed something to the field?", and "What are the differences between a masters thesis and a research paper" has its own, different, answers. Please edit to include just one question, and I'll reopen. (You can ask the other questions in their own posts; they're good questions. Just different ones.)
    – ff524
    Dec 28, 2016 at 18:12
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    One thing that might be expected in a master's thesis is that you will prove you know something, whereas in a research paper the purpose is different. Dec 29, 2016 at 22:29

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