Approaching this question from a psychological rather than legalistic perspective, I would argue similarly to vadim123 that the question you should ask is not "should I claim co-authorship?" When you feel a need to "claim" anything, you are putting yourself in an adversarial position relative to the student and other collaborators. This is likely to antagonize them and put them on the defensive with the perception that you are coming to stake a claim to a piece of property they have ownership of. Given the marginal nature of your claim, this zero-sum type of logic would mean that your chances of success would be very slim and you would run a substantial risk of hurting your reputation and/or souring your working relationship with the paper's authors and other colleagues.
On the other hand, it's important to keep in mind that this is not in fact a zero-sum situation. While I don't think you should be talking about "claiming" authorship, there is nothing to stop you from suggesting that you may become an author to the work by participating in its writing and including the framework you wrote as one of the topics discussed in the paper. The key is to do this in a diplomatic, sensitive way that appeals to the authors' self-interest and points out various ways in which it might very well be to their benefit to add you as a coauthor. It's also important that your offer makes it clear that you don't intend to force the issue and consider a decision not to include you as a coauthor to be a reasonable and legitimate one. Above all, avoid any use of accusatory, entitled-sounding or negatively charged words (such as "claim" or "deserve").
Here's an example (perhaps slightly exaggerated for dramatic effect) of how an email to the student bringing up the issue might work:*
*credit to @ff524 for the fictional - I assume - basket weaving research theme ;-)
I heard that you and [insert name of group/collaborators] are working on a paper on your new results about basket weaving. Congratulations, I'm glad something came out of that project. I hope you manage to publish it somewhere good.
I thought I'd run something by you in connection with that. As you know, I spent several months working quite hard on the Basketweaving Framework that you used in that analysis. While I don't necessarily think that that should entitle me to coauthorship in your paper (and if you don't want to offer me coauthorship, I understand and think that's completely reasonable), it did occur to me that if you were to offer to let me take part in writing the paper and become a coauthor you could get several benefits that might not have occurred to you:
First, we could add a section about the basket weaving framework itself, which I created. I don't know if you wanted to mention it, but the new content could improve the paper and make it appeal to a wider audience, and possibly be accepted to a more prestigious conference, etc.
Second, another way that I could help is that I am a really good writer and put a lot of work into each paper I write - you can look at my existing papers and see how polished they are, with great figures etc. - and I can assure you that I am willing to work very hard to ensure that this paper has the same level of polish that would help the quality of the work shine through. Did I mention that my most recent paper was accepted to the International Congress Of Basketweavers? ;-)
Third, I've found in my career so far that while having coauthors does dilute a bit the credit you get for papers you write, it does so much less than you might think, and this effect is usually greatly outweighed by the fact that a coauthor is essentially a free spokesperson working for you, who goes around giving talks about your joint work at various places, and who can often say nice things about you in those talks that you couldn't easily get away with saying about yourself. Maybe it's cynical of me to be thinking in this way, but that's just one of the quirks of academia and how it operates and it's just as well to be aware of it.
As I said I'm happy with whatever decision you and the group end up making, just thought you might want to think about this.