Having recently received a PhD in Economics from a European university, I am entering the academic job market for economists this year. I am targeting research-intense, PhD-granting universities in the U.S. and Canada. I am thinking about Tier 4-5 institutions (certainly not Tier 1 or 2, I do not think I would have a chance there).
I am now trying to wrap my head around the quoted salaries for tenure-track assistant professorships. Having little clue of 9 vs. 12 month appointments, notions like "nominal academic year salary" and the like, I am trying to figure the gross annual salaries from the job adds. After that I am interested in deriving the corresponding net salaries; my lack of familiarity with the U.S. or the Canadian tax systems certainly does not help here.
For example, "Survey of the Labor Market for New Ph.D. Hires In Economics 2015-16" reports "expected and actual offers" on p. 8. Should I understand this is the actual annual gross salary, or should I divide or multiply it by 9/12, or add or deduct something?
Similarly, "American Economic Association Universal Academic Questionnaire Summary Statistics" (2016) list "nominal academic year salaries" in their tables. Are these the actual gross annual salaries, or..?
Once you help me figure out how to infer the gross annual salary, the next step would be to tell approximately what net salary that would correspond to. Should I expect to earn, say, 60,000 net given 100,000 gross? When I say "net", I am interested in hard cash going directly into my pocket. I would not consider any pension or insurance contributions that circumvent my pocket as part of the net salary. I am interested in how much money I would have at the end of the day to pay the bills and to put food on my family's table.
In short, what I am looking for is a brief introduction into the U.S./Canadian academic salary accounting accompanied with a couple of examples.
Edit: The first two answers focus more (although not entirely) on gross vs. net salaries (where taxes etc. feature prominently). However, I am still very much interested in how to read the job adds as well as tables with salary comparisons. That is, does the nominal figure typically equal the gross annual salary, or not exactly? What about my two examples mentioned above?