I wrote a paper of 17 pages and containing 37 citations, could this large number of pages and citations affect its acceptance in any scientific journal or magazine?
17 pages of manuscript usually shrink to eight or ten in the journal, and 37 citations does not sound like an exceptionally large number.
It depends on the journal you want to submit this paper to. Change the typesetting to the format of that journal, to see how many pages you actually have, and then compare to other articles in there.
Generally: It doesn't matter, if it's not totally off. Is you article well written, scientifically rigorous, referencing the scientific background, and adds something new to it? Then submit it to a journal where it fits in.
The number of citations for a paper depends on what sort of a paper you are writing.
If you are writing a paper describing a novel experiment/implementation, the number of citations aren't generally a criteria as long as all the methodologies and ideas behind the techniques used are justified with citations of academic articles.
On the other hand, if you are writing a review or a survey paper collating all the existing methodologies and their effectiveness, the number of citations are generally expected to be high (something beyond 30-40 citations).
Specific to your question, it does seem like 37 references seems to be a little less for a paper that is 17 pages long. But this is usually dependent on the field of study your paper is in.
With all that being said, there is generally no strict criteria for this. As mentioned in one of the comments by Stephan Kolassa, some journals may have specific requirements referring to the citations, usually present in the "Instructions to Authors" section of the website for the conference/journal.