Why some publications are not included in Google Scholar, while some are, for the same conference?

For example, there are a number of papers on Black Hat:



But when you search for them, like "Abusing XSLT for Practical Attacks" on Google Scholar, there is no result. They are papers in 2015, it has been one year since then.

Also, they meet the Google Scholar's inclusion requirement: https://scholar.google.com/intl/en/scholar/inclusion.html

However, for some other papers in the same conference (Black Hat USA 2015), they are included in Google Scholar.

So what are the real standards for publications to be included and searchable in Google Scholar?

  • 1
    Google Scholar is pretty hit and miss - it's using a crawler not manually curated. It wouldn't entirely surprise me if material is just not picked up for various reasons. Commented Aug 28, 2016 at 10:12
  • Your title and general question are appropriate (i.e., why are some publications included, while some are not), but if you are only really interested in why Black Hat conference papers are not well indexed by Google Scholar, then you should ask that as a specific question. Otherwise, the Google Scholar inclusion criteria information (which you link), answers your general question adequately. The Black Hat case is a minor exception. If, however, Black Hat is what you really care about, then please make that the topic of your question, not just "an example".
    – Tripartio
    Commented Aug 28, 2016 at 21:31

1 Answer 1


Doing a little bit of poking around, I found most articles on BlackHat 2015 not listed in Google Scholar, and all of the articles that I did find listed were cited by other papers.

It seems to me then likely that this is among the "grey area" sites that Google Scholar is not indexing (BlackHat's status as an academic conference is murky), and thus that any material that you find is being added to the Google Scholar index through other routes.

  • What the "other routes" are? If the paper has a citation, would it be crawled?
    – WindChaser
    Commented Aug 28, 2016 at 15:46
  • @WindChaser Google infers publication records from citations, even if it can't find the original document.
    – jakebeal
    Commented Aug 28, 2016 at 17:21
  • If so, how Google Scholar binds its found PDF file to the publication entry (which previously has no PDF available)?
    – WindChaser
    Commented Sep 4, 2016 at 18:29
  • @WindChaser I'm not a Google engineer, so I don't know for certain, but my guess is that Google finds all of the PDFs with the rest of its web-crawling, and it's not to hard to link it over when Scholar discovers that it's a scientific publication.
    – jakebeal
    Commented Sep 4, 2016 at 21:07

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