Maybe -- but you should certainly understand that a far more common case is to take a STEM Ph.D. and turn them into a quant, a data scientist, or possibly a computer programmer or software engineer. A business analyst or management consultant is also not unheard of (although this will probably take some passion on your part; you're less likely to find a red carpet at the end of grad school without business skills in their own right.) The financial sector loves math Ph.Ds but you might find it a bit unrelated to your super-specialty (you get to do math at least).
It's not a bad way for a career to work out, but if you're more motivated by $$ than spending several years of doing science without much $, there are much more efficient routes. That is, people who land great jobs after getting their STEM Ph.D. could very, very likely have been further along in their career if they went straight into industry. YMMV.