My application for admission to a degree program or research position at universities in Europe, USA, Australia, and so on has been rejected. If I then write several new papers for journals and conferences and again apply to the same university, is there any chance for me to obtain admission, or will I be automatically rejected?
No, every year, (at least with majority institutions here in the USA), there is a new applications cycle. They may ask you if you previously applied, and they may compare you with your previous stats, but in the new cycle, you will facing off against new applicants. So for your question, no, every year is a new ball game and a new start. In my experience though, I (personally) have seen a very low success rate of students applying to the same institution in varying cycles. It's best then, to know your capabilities and apply to other schools, and perhaps some that are lower ranked.
I can only speak about the admissions process in the United States, but you will not automatically be reconsidered (i.e., you will need to apply again).
At least in my area, published papers do carry non-trivial weight in the admissions process, so it's great that you now have those. Overall, I think they key factor in getting an different outcome this time around is highlighting what has changed since you last applied. It seems like you now have publications you didn't have before, so be sure to highlight those. If your grades or standardized test scores were weak, highlight anything that can show that you've made an effort to improve them (e.g., getting good grades in areas where you were weak, getting a higher GRE score, etc). If you suspect that your recommendation letters were not strong, perhaps try to ask someone else who may provide a stronger letter this time. Et cetera.
In most cases of multiple rejections from the same program, I believe applicants are rejected again because their new application is not substantially different from their old (previously rejected) application. Like Alexanders, I also encourage you to apply to different schools in addition to reapplying to the same schools as before, just to maximize your chances of admission (of course, only apply to schools where you could realistically see yourself going, as to not waste your time or the time of the respective admissions committees).