In my country (Vietnam), the professor title is bestowed by a national council. In Korean or USA, it is bestowed by the university. What about other countries (e.g. Japan, France, Germany, Australia, England, Russia)? And if the title is bestow by the university, is it still recognized when the person who hold the title move to other university?
In the United States, personal titles are almost never legally protected or regulated by the government. This is a strong cultural tradition going back through the origin of the nation, and is in fact encoded in the US Constitution, in the "Titles of Nobility" clause:
No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States: and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, emolument, office, or title, of any kind whatever, from any king, prince, or foreign state.
In the US, then, in general anybody can call themselves any title they feel like, including Professor, Doctor, President, and Emperor. The title, per se, is only a matter of social convention and will be respected or disrespected based on whether other people believe a person deserves it. The law typically only gets involved from a perspective of fraud, false advertising, public endangerment, etc. if a person uses such a title to give a false impression of your skills and certifications. To illustrate the distinction: Dr. Dre is perfectly within his rights to use that name, but if he tried to give somebody a prescription, he could be arrested for practicing medicine without a license.
Thus, the US government does not name people professor (except incidentally, if it happens to be running the university, e.g. NWC). Typically universities name people "professor" as a job title, but in fact, anybody can call themselves a professor or set up their own fake university to be a professor at.
In France, the title of Professeur des Universités (as well as the lesser Maître de Conférences, another tenure-like position comparable to a lecturer) is defined by a decree of the President of the Republic. Both Professeurs and Maîtres de Conférences are State civil servants and depend on the Ministry of higher education, rather than on their university. They are officially named by a decree of the President of the Republic, but the actual decision process lies with academia:
- A university advertises a professor's position when one of their professors retires, or when the government grants them a new position (pretty rare);
- Prior to the selection process, candidates must be listed as "qualified" for the title of Professor in a given field by an official body, the national council of universities (Conseil National des Universités, CNU). Typically, it means that the candidate is a Maître de Conférences with enough experience, reputation and publications;
- Candidates for each position are selected by a committee, which includes academics from said university, academics from other institutions and non-academics (of course this is France - and academia, so there are a lot more rules about the composition of those committees);
- The president of the university elects a candidate based on the selection made by the committee (the first ranked is usually chosen, but politics may interfere in the process);
- The next nomination decree lists the chosen candidate among the newly appointed Professeurs des Universités.
The process is the same for the Maîtres the Conférences, except that the conditions for the initial qualification are not the same (typically, a few publications and some teaching experience).
In Taiwan, you need to pass the Screening of Qualification on Teachers of Junior Colleges and Higher Levels by Ministry of Education to earn the title. In the page it says,
Those who apply for the screening of teacher qualification ... shall submit: Doctoral Award(s) or other equivalent certificate(s), transcripts and specialized publications ...
Those who apply for the screening of teacher qualification ... shall submit: Doctoral Award(s) or other equivalent certificate(s), transcripts and specialized publications. ...
Those who apply for the screening of teacher qualification ... shall submit: Doctoral Award(s) or other equivalent certificate(s), relevant certificate(s) of seniority, transcripts and either one of the important contributions their creations, inventions have made to academia and their important specialized publications.
Those who apply for the screening of teacher qualification ... shall submit: Certificate(s) of Associate Professor, relevant certificate(s) of seniority, transcripts and specialized publications.
Those who are employed by schools and do the actual teaching are entitled to apply for the screening ...
The full-time teachers shall send the applications via the schools they serve ...
Those who pass the screening of teacher qualification shall be conferred the teacher certificates; the format of the certificates shall be prescribed by the Ministry. The recognition of the seniority listed on teacher certificates shall be prescribed by the Ministry.
I could not find the document in English for moving to other universities at the moment. To the best of my knowledge, the title is transferable when you move to other universities.