Since 1919 the first time "democracy" and "science" was introduced into China, two academic position systems have been carried out in Chinese research and educational institutions. One is from Former Soviet Union, known as the "研究员" ("Researcher" or "Research Fellow" in rough English translation) system, the other is from western style, that is "professorship". Who knows how to properly translate "研究员" or "副研究员" into English equivalent positions? This questions confused me and other Chinese academics for years.

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    I have no idea about the Chinese academic system, but I am convinced that the answer to the titular question will be you can't. The best you can generally do is to do a loose mapping and accept that some nuances will be lost in translation. – xLeitix Jul 8 '15 at 11:23
  • There is a Baidu page in Chinese to explain it. – scaaahu Jul 8 '15 at 11:25
  • Vote to close as "Too broad". I don't think there is a universal definition of the terms in the Chinese world. As far as I know, there are different systems in the following areas: China, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Singapore. Each has its own systems. For the question to be more answerable, you may need to specify the location and provide more details. Hopefully, someone knowledgeable will be able to answer it.(Not me, I am as confused as you are.) – scaaahu Jul 8 '15 at 12:10
  • Actually, I think there are good questions about the subject - research fellow (very rough translation), such as: What exactly is the difference between research fellow and professor (still may be too broad), Can a research fellow teach? If so, what is the time limit? quarter time? half time? Can a research fellow teach at a university other than his institute as an adjunct professor? Conversely, can a university professor be a visiting research fellow at another institute while on sabbatical leave? Etc. Pick one, you'll have a rather more answerable question. – scaaahu Jul 9 '15 at 2:55
  • @Peter I added "Researcher" or "Research Fellow" English translation into your question to make it more understandable to non-Chinese speaking users here. If my edit changed the merit of the question, please remove it as you wish. Thanks. – scaaahu Jul 9 '15 at 5:41