I've published my scientific results one year ago, but I didn't apply for patent at that time. Can I still patent it?



You can only patent material that has not been publicly disseminated, and publication certainly counts as public dissemination. In many jurisdictions, you lose the ability to patent immediately after doing so. In other jurisdictions, like the United States, there is a one-year grace period, but it sounds like that has elapsed for you as well.

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    The allowance for getting a retroactive patent on published work in the US is of considerable interest to the IP offices at big US research universities who generally want you to tell them about papers so that they can consider filing the paperwork (because the university is going to claim the patent as work-for-hire and then feed the researcher a profit sharing cut to keep them happy). Jun 21 '15 at 20:49
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    A minor addition: in many jurisdictions (e.g. Germany) you can still apply for a patent while the review process is ongoing, as this is regarded as a confidential process and not yet a publication. Jun 21 '15 at 22:37

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