I will finish my MS soon and I will apply for fall 2016-PhD. I am wondering is there any short-term research assistance program ( 6-9 months) especially in Australia or European countries? If there are, how can I find them?(I don't mean summer schools which are mostly for undergrads) I should mention that I am from Iran, and I have studied in the best university here but most of the international programs support students from limited countries, so finding a short-term program which admits people from all over the world has been really hard for me.
For Australia: Endeavour Research Fellowships offer a 4-6 month research trip to Australia for most countries, including Iran (Endeavour).
For Europe: As mentioned in the comments, the DAAD offers a number of different scholarships for research trips to Germany. The Iran DAAD page is here and the pages for other countries can be easily found by searching.
For the USA: The Fulbright offers an exchange program for students to spend an academic year in the USA, but it isn't available for students from Iran (Fulbright).
Note that all these are for currently enrolled graduate students - if you are trying to fund research when you are in between a MS and a PhD then unfortunately I'm not sure how much luck you'll have.