I doubt there is a given weight to any of an applicant's documentation. Every applicant is different, and every PhD research is different.
- An applicant might do well in certain competitions for coding, but a PhD research is certainly not only about coding. Most of it is literature review, writing and formulating the problem and finding a solution (which has nothing to do with coding)
- An applicant may have wonderful scores on each and every subject (in Bachelor/Master maybe), but if it is not completely within the field of the PhD, a committee will most likely look at how capable this applicant is for the research
- An applicant with a very good CV who writes an application letter that does not indicate any interest or is poorly written is most likely not to be chosen compared to an applicant with a reasonable CV who shows strong interest and enthusiasm
Certainly, listing achievements and publications helps if you like to have a career in academia. In tech companies they hire you specifically for your programming skill, and that's most likely what you do there, not too much else. In academia it's the 'full package' that you need to provide.
To conclude: I doubt there is a grading system and equation that evaluates the 'best match' for a PhD position.
Edit: I am not saying that you should not mention them in an application. All achievements, honors and awards gained in the field will benefit your application. It can be beneficial to even shortly explain the details of the competition and your result, so the committee understands their importance.