Copyright does not protect ideas, just how they are expressed. Copying text generally violates copyright (although there are exceptions in which quoting is permitted), but copyright places no restrictions whatsoever on using ideas.
For example, can I refuse other people to use the original idea of my paper?
No, using your ideas is not enough to turn another paper into a derivative work.
Or can I forbid them using an original technical procedure described in my paper?
No, copyright is not relevant. It keeps people from copying your description of the procedure; instead, they have to rewrite it in their own words. However, copyright has nothing to do with using the procedure.
Patents could be relevant, if the technical procedure is patented, but that's completely different from copyright (and there are no automatic patents, the way people automatically get copyright). You could certainly debate whether patents are a problem for science, but this has nothing to do with copyright.
Or what about copying graphs or figures?
Copyright does prohibit reproducing graphs or figures (again with some exceptions, such as fair use in the U.S.). However, it's OK to create a different graph/figure that conveys the same information.