I have a discussion with my mate about how to reference with the Harvard referencing style.

enter image description here

I would say it is wrong to do the referencing like in the picture below.

My suggestion was that the footnotes was to explantion of synonyms or something like that and all references should be in the end of the paper work, so the reader have all the references in one or two pages, so it's easier to get an overview of all references.

Am I totally wrong?

  • Hi and welcome, what exactly is your question? harvard describes a whole series of author-year citation. Some fields use citations in footnotes. Advantage, not searching at the end of the paper, but at the bottom of the page. – Johannes_B Nov 25 '14 at 15:07
  • Thanks! My question is: If you look at the picture, is it right to make references in the footer? – Andrew Nov 25 '14 at 15:09
  • See the updated comment above. Yes, depending on the field. – Johannes_B Nov 25 '14 at 15:10
  • Ahh ok. Im in the engineering field. But thanks! – Andrew Nov 25 '14 at 15:11
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    @OswaldVeblen I dunno, this sounds like "How do I use a certain format?" It'd be like "How do I cite a verbatim translation in APA?" Which I think would be on-topic. – Compass Nov 25 '14 at 22:18

As your question is directly about Harvard referencing, I believe all Harvard referencing uses in-text citations. Wikipedia supports this understanding.

Yes, you can use footnotes but they are used for clarification or comments, they are not used for referencing as the image in the question has done [therefore the author has cited improperly].

There are several sub-types of Harvard but ALL of them that I am familiar with are in-text, not based on footnotes (except as noted above).


Footnotes are quite common in the humanities, and less so in science and engineering. Putting a reference in the footnotes can happen, according to the specific paper and citation style you are using. For example, the Chicago Manual of Style can use either footnotes or parenthetical references.

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