I have a discussion with my mate about how to reference with the Harvard referencing style.

enter image description here

I would say it is wrong to do the referencing like in the picture below.

My suggestion was that the footnotes was to explantion of synonyms or something like that and all references should be in the end of the paper work, so the reader have all the references in one or two pages, so it's easier to get an overview of all references.

Am I totally wrong?

  • Hi and welcome, what exactly is your question? harvard describes a whole series of author-year citation. Some fields use citations in footnotes. Advantage, not searching at the end of the paper, but at the bottom of the page.
    – Johannes_B
    Nov 25, 2014 at 15:07
  • Thanks! My question is: If you look at the picture, is it right to make references in the footer?
    – Andrew
    Nov 25, 2014 at 15:09
  • See the updated comment above. Yes, depending on the field.
    – Johannes_B
    Nov 25, 2014 at 15:10
  • Ahh ok. Im in the engineering field. But thanks!
    – Andrew
    Nov 25, 2014 at 15:11
  • 2
    @OswaldVeblen I dunno, this sounds like "How do I use a certain format?" It'd be like "How do I cite a verbatim translation in APA?" Which I think would be on-topic.
    – Compass
    Nov 25, 2014 at 22:18

2 Answers 2


As your question is directly about Harvard referencing, I believe all Harvard referencing uses in-text citations. Wikipedia supports this understanding.

Yes, you can use footnotes but they are used for clarification or comments, they are not used for referencing as the image in the question has done [therefore the author has cited improperly].

There are several sub-types of Harvard but ALL of them that I am familiar with are in-text, not based on footnotes (except as noted above).


Footnotes are quite common in the humanities, and less so in science and engineering. Putting a reference in the footnotes can happen, according to the specific paper and citation style you are using. For example, the Chicago Manual of Style can use either footnotes or parenthetical references.

You must log in to answer this question.