In many cases the words via and through are interchangeable. However, is via viewed as acceptable to use among the academic community, typically?
I personally have a distaste for it, but that doesn't really mean much.
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There is nothing wrong with the word "via," and in fact I personally have a weakness for it: sometimes it just feels more elegant and specific than alternatives like "through" or "by means of." I also, however, have a weakness for a lot of somewhat archaic phrases, due to spending a lot of my childhood reading old books.
The general principle which I think academic writing should subscribe to is Orwell's notion of "transparent prose," in which the words are as clear as a window, letting one through to the ideas with minimal obstruction. Using too many unusual words, such as a lot of "via" and "thus" can be distracting, particularly for an international audience. Sometimes, though, a word is simply fit and elegant in its context, and there is no reason to avoid using it.
I am skeptical that the [anglophone] academic community as a whole has clear preferences on word choices beyond what is considered good English usage. Specific academic fields and communities of academics certainly do have preferred and deprecated word choices (and these choices are not necessarily viewed positively by the larger world: cf. "jargon").
Might some particular professor like one word more than another? Of course, but that is just about the ne plus ultra of a question which is "too localized" to be useful on a site like this one. Moreover, even if she likes "through" better than "via" or vice versa: so what? Is she going to think less of your academic essay because of it? That would be most unreasonable.
Having said all that: the words "via" and "through" are not fully synonymous: see this question on another SE site for a good discussion. As the answers indicate, "through" is the much older word in English usage and has a much larger range of uses. The word "via" is much more specific: it means by way of; by the route which passes through or over (a specified place) or by means of, with the aid of. In academic writing one often wants to express that two things (concepts, ideas, problems...) can be related to each other by means of a third thing. Given that the word via has as its origin a Roman road connecting point A to point B, this usage is very appropriate for making such connections. In spoken language, "via" is somewhat uncommon and may perhaps be viewed as stilted or pretentious. In academic writing it is extremely common and unobtrusive (when used appropriately): the eye passes right over it. The idea that this particular word would be objectionable to an academic is especially strange to me. (There are a lot of words like this: in my academic writing I use "thus" and "hence" all the time; in nonacademic speech, not at all.)