People do care about honor societies. That includes prospective employers, your peers, your teachers, your family and friends, as well as you. I've seen an endless amount of these types of discussions on the internet as well as within groups of people I know in college. And, there are always very similar responses from two distinct groups: people who are actually in them (both the legitimate ones and the less prestigious ones), and the other large contingent of people who are not invited and who just outright know next to nothing about the honor society being discussed.
There's always going to be noise from people who neither put in the work, nor have the successful mentality to appreciate the role of rewards when persevering through long stretches of almost unthinkable difficulty in school. My advice is to ignore these people. They will exist throughout your entire life and will never cease trying to convince you that your success is unnecessary, and that you should lower your standards to match theirs. I promise you. These people will exist in every nook and cranny of your life from now until you die. It's best to shoo them away and bring in other success-minded people who lift you up.
There are indeed some hokey honor societies out there who don't have the history or structure to hold any weight. Golden Key was the best example of this at my university. I couldn't find a single person who could recommend joining. Although their requirements are so-so (I believe it's upper 10% of your class), no-one thinks highly of this. And, there's very little practical incentive to join like scholarships, discounts, etc. Despite being invited, I did not join this group.
But, there are in fact many honor societies that will incite looks of approval from esteemed professors, directors, chairs of departments, and potential employers. I know this because I have personally experienced it. There are professors teaching your classes who were not invited to join honor societies. Many partners at firms I've interviewed with are not members and were not invited. Acknowledgement of my membership in these honor societies is a frequent point of discussion and I've never had anything but positive feedback about my involvement with them.
Aside from the hokey honor societies like Golden Key I am excluding, there are two major types of honor society you can join: major-specific like Beta Alpha Psi which is specific to accounting majors, and large, interdisciplinary honor societies like Phi Kappa Phi and Omicron Delta Kappa. These two different types are similar, but serve different practical purposes. I'm an accounting major, so I've been involved with Beta Alpha Psi for almost a year now. The requirements aren't that demanding: 3.0, involvement in a BAP committee, and 20 professional/service hours per semester. But, the rewards of involvement are HUGE for a prospective CPA. I've been heavily involved with all large and small firms (both local and big four), and I've been interviewed and offered jobs frequently. (And on a side note, there is nothing more academically rewarding than being able to constantly turn down offers for both internships and FT jobs.) I am good friends with many of the top notch students, and casually acquainted with most accounting firms. This is an immense advantage and it's directly linked with my involvement with Beta Alpha Psi.
The other two I mentioned, Phi Kappa Phi and Omicron Delta Kappa, have a completely different criteria for joining and thus, serve a completely different purpose. These are a traditional "honor society" that most people think of when these talks come up. But, there are very specific reasons why I both wanted to join, and actively pursued fulfilling the requirements to join when I first started college. First, they are exclusive and prestigious. At my university, these two are the only two honor societies formally recognized when you graduate. Second, they have high standards for joining. Phi Kappa Phi is based off how high your GPA is in relation to yours peers and only invites juniors and seniors. Since I was invited as a Junior, I know I have a higher GPA than 92.5% of the people in my class. Despite what people will attempt to convince you in discussion forums, this is something to be very proud of. Omicron Delta Kappa has what I feel are even stricter requirements. At my university, you have to maintain above a 3.3 gpa, but also demonstrate 3/5 leadership skills by active involvement in your university, community, etc. This was the HS I was most proud to be invited to, and I happily joined. Third, both of these HS' are over 100 years old, have many successful, very well recognized names among their ranks like past presidents, politicians, artists, scientists, etc., and are pretty much universally acknowledged as being an honor to join. And finally fourth, you get to wear honor cords and/or stoles when you graduate.
So to sum up, try to avoid getting caught up in the net of bitter people who don't encourage you to enjoy your success and rewards for hard work. Again, they will attempt to buzz around and distract you for the rest of your life. Whatever people try to convince you, no-one is getting rich on some obscure concept of an honor society scam. These organizations run on a shoestring budget consisting mainly of volunteers and charitable donations. If it is a "scam," it's the worst scam in history created by some of the brightest individuals available. It doesn't hurt to have these on your resume, but it's also very rewarding to be a part of something that rewards and encourages excellence. Most of the people who matter will think highly of your membership as many of the people teaching you weren't invited or are not members. Good luck! I hope this sheds some much needed light on your decision.
p.s. As someone above me mentioned, being involved in a leadership role will always be more advantageous than just being a passive participant. But, it just depends on the nature of the HS. I'm running for an officer position at the end of this semester in Beta Alpha Psi, but I have virtually no involvement in the others. I know this is a huge boost to my resume, but it's more of a practical decision that is slightly outside the topic of discussion here.