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I think both withdrawal and retraction are done when there is something wrong with the journal article.

What is the difference between them?

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    This is one example of Latin synonyms for Old English words of Norse or Germanic origin owing to this dual heritage: Value/worth, cow/beef etc. Commented Mar 29 at 11:19

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Withdrawal happens before the article is published, during peer review. Retraction happens after it is published.

By the way withdrawal does not imply there is something wrong with the journal article - it could e.g. mean the authors think the journal is taking too long with peer review, and they'd rather submit elsewhere.

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    Also, withdrawal does not necessarily mean there is something wrong with the paper. Authors withdraw for all kinds of reasons, including that the journal took too long to assess the paper.
    – xLeitix
    Commented Mar 28 at 8:38
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    Withdrawn can also mean the authors were unable to comply with some required step for the journal like presentation of the work in person at a conference, or a publication fee.
    – Bryan Krause
    Commented Mar 28 at 12:34
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    The distinction may not be always the case, e.g. "Publishers withdraw more than 120 gibberish papers". Commented Mar 29 at 11:10

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