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I'm fairly certain that this exact statistic doesn't exist, so educated estimates are welcome. According to the Education Data Initiative, almost exactly 2 million Americans graduated with a bachelor's degree in 2022.

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The Conference Board on the Mathematical Sciences (CBMS) conducts a survey every five years that includes data on enrollments in Calculus courses. Sadly the 2020 report isn't yet available, but the 2015 report has some relevant data:

https://www.ams.org/profession/data/cbms-survey/cbms2015-Report.pdf

The survey shows about 950,000 enrollments in calculus level courses in 2015. That includes both Calc I and Calc II, counts students who enrolled but did not pass, and includes various kinds of "Calculus Lite" courses such as business calculus, so it's not perfect. A reasonable order of magnitude estimate is about 500,000 graduates per year who had passed Calc I, out of a total of roughly 2.1 million college graduates per year (various sources) and about 450,000 STEM graduates per year (various sources). Various sources say that about 20% of college students are in STEM majors.

Some non-STEM students take calculus, and some STEM majors don't require calculus of their students (For example, it's becoming common for biology programs to not require any calculus.) Overall, 25% seems to be in the right ballpark (I'd be surprised if it was lower than 5% or higher than 50%), although there will be considerable variation across institutions and degree programs. For example, two semesters of calculus are part of the general education requirements for all BS degrees at my institution.

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    Some students complete Calculus I or II in high school. So they graduate from college with calculus but might never be enrolled as undergraduates. While this number is small it adds to your estimate. Mar 19 at 22:35
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    The number of students who take calculus in high school is quite large (hundreds of thousands) but many of them do not earn college credit (by passing the AP exam or taking a dual credit course) and many of these students end up taking calculus again in college. Mar 20 at 13:08

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