I'm trying to create references in a dissertation, but one of my source titles starts with the year "2023". How do I reference this properly in APA 7?

Immuta. (2023). 2023 state of data engineering survey. In 2023 state of data engineering survey. https://www.immuta.com/resources/2023-state-of-data-engineering-survey/

  • 3
    Why is that a problem? In APA and all other styles, the title of the work appears in a specific place. What the title is (i.e., whether it contains numbers or not) should not matter. Jan 7 at 16:12
  • because the first word of the title is a number, does the second word become capitalized? or is it ok as it is?
    – arcee123
    Jan 7 at 20:21
  • The first word happens to be 2023. The second word is not the first word of the sentence, and so it is not capitalized. Jan 8 at 23:24

1 Answer 1


The standard way in American Psychological Association (APA) format would simply be:

In-text citation:

  • (Immuta, 2023)

Obviously, if the report has individual authors or editors, they would be referred to in the usual APA style ... but the fact that the title of the collection happens to begin with a year does not lead to any change, of itself, in the formatting of the reference.

Added: The actual report, available in PDF form here, lists no individual authors or editors.

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