It's not common to cite a thesis/dissertation when the same work is published separately, because for some meanings of the word "published", a thesis/dissertation is not really published (even if it is "published" by other meanings of the word, such as existing in some repository that is accessible to others), and because the author of the thesis/dissertation would always be an author of the published paper, too.
Citing the thesis would be a bit like citing a previous draft on your computer (not exactly, but this is approximately how it's treated). It also helps avoid some messiness over the exact order in which things are finished.
I wonder if the supervisor can publish the papers OR include the work in these papers in his future publication without citing my dissertation?
If anyone contributed to the work at the level of an author, they need to be offered authorship when the work is submitted. Since this is your work, you must be allowed to be an author of a future publication of the work.
If the work is never published, and your supervisor is building on that work independently, then that is a case where they could (and should) cite the dissertation, since there is no other version to cite.
Can he generally publish the papers after introducing some modifications to the papers without listing my name as a co-author?
Modifying a paper does not remove rights to authorship that already exist.
Disputes about any of the above are not necessarily easy to negotiate, though; can your supervisor submit these papers and leave your name off the submission? Certainly they can, but this should not be permitted. If it does happen, you may need to take evidence to a journal to ask for a retraction, and separately you could submit an academic misconduct complaint through your supervisor's institution.