I'm flying a bit blind here, but if I can assume that the student "stumbled" upon something that was important, but they didn't have the expertise to exploit it themselves, then, they are, in any ethical world, co-author with the rest of you who do have that experience and knowledge. Otherwise, I think you would be committing malpractice.
Lots of things take a long time to work themselves out. The implications of a discovery may not be obvious to the one who discovers them, even when that person is experienced and prominent in the field. I can't give examples, but there are important things in math named for discoverers who didn't fully comprehend the import of the discovery.
The fact that this is tangential to their own work is immaterial. The fact that it calls accepted theory into question is important.
You honor the profession as well as the student to include them as author in any publication resulting from this work.
Edited to add. They may not have the experience to lead, and it might be a good learning experience for them if "you" do. And it might not be enough for a degree even if followed up. It might not be enough to have them redirect their research in this direction. You are a better judge of that than someone from a distance. But, yes, include them in important discussions and treat them (to some extent) as a colleague.