I keep hearing that there are a ton of job opportunities for Mathematics bachelors, but what is still unclear to me is, how does a person, once obtained with a Mathematics degree, say in pure, find jobs to apply for in Germany?
There are ton of jobs opportunities for Mathematics bachelors. Since a bachelor degree is generally obtained before one is 25 years old, there is plenty of time to retrain for any required skill.
Some jobs require some training&formation by the company, some other jobs require a complete shift in career.
There are tons of resources on how to find a job in Germany, so the question is a tad too broad. A good starting point is this forum for immigrants to Germany.
Best of luck!