Certain bibliographic item classes in BibTeX require or recommend the inclusion of a address field which (as far as I can tell) is supposed to contain the city in which the publisher is located. However, it is often unclear to me what the best practice is for determining the location of a publisher.

Take, for example, a paper published by the IEEE Computer Society, there are no less than three possible locations that could be used for such a paper, namely:

  • New York, New York, United States of America (IEEE headquarters)
  • Piscataway, New Jersey, United States of America (IEEE operations center)
  • Washington, D.C., United States of America (IEEE Computer Society headquarters)

It's unclear to me which of the above would be most appropriate.

In a similar vein, Springer's automated BibTeX export uses the location Berlin, Heidelberg, but this clashes with the commonly used schema of City[, State], Country, i.e. it implies that Berlin is situated inside Heidelberg, which is untrue. Is there a more clear way to describe that Springer is, indeed, settled in both of these cities, but that they are both in Germany?

1 Answer 1


You can get it "straight from the horse's mouth":

The address for books is usually found on or near the title page of the book that you are citing. You cannot go far wrong by using what they came up with.

Springer is difficult, because they list now many locations starting in New York and ending in Tokyo. It used to be just Berlin, Heidelberg, New York. Only an automated parser would assume that Berlin is in New York, so I would use that for Springer. However, you can also trick bibtex by leaving the address field blank. If you do not include it, it often prints a nasty triple question mark.

IEEE Press (as opposed to IEEE Computer or IEEE proper) lists its address as Piscataway,NJ on its books.

For articles:

If you go to the digital library of IEEE, you can find an extensive bibtex entry for the article. It does not seem to be behind their pay-wall. However, it does NOT give an address.

  • Berlin, New York does exist, but yeah, if Heidelberg is in the mix it's hard to parse it that way.
    – Anyon
    Commented Sep 15, 2023 at 14:55

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