To cold email professors asking if they would take me as a PhD student I usually craft ad-hoc and on point emails, expressing my competences and my interest in one of their articles, with reference to something very specific I have appreciated therein.
This is usually successful.
I am now very interested in an advertised position, and informal enquiries are welcome, prior to formal applications: I wish to know what level of skills is required in a certain topic, how would the supervision work and so on.
Is it acceptable to write an email saying roughly "I am very interested and I would like to gather more details on content and supervision. Would you be available for an online meeting? I attach my CV for your information."?
Or this is too generic? Note that a cover letter is still required in the end.