You know you need to pass this exam to continue, so, it seems like you may need to reevaluate your priorities if right now you're considering it a lower priority. Echoing cag51's comment, it's not clear what else you need to succeed besides that. Hopefully you know how to read and understand papers in your field at a level appropriate to your career stage.
Your advisor is probably right in the broader sense of things - coursework during a PhD doesn't matter much for future positions in academia (post docs, professorships), instead your research record will be most important going forward.
However, you don't get to continue the research part if you don't pass these exams.
If your advisor isn't aware of that, you might need to explain it to them, they didn't necessarily have the same structure when they were a graduate student. For example, for me the preliminary examination consisted of a paper written on a topic outside the research area plus a thesis proposal; the program tried to encourage timely completion, but in reality many students didn't complete the process until they were several years in the program and nearing graduation. There was very little urgency. In other programs, there may be an exam based off the required coursework where really no extra studying is needed: as long as you've done reasonably well in the courses, which may not be very difficult for most students in the program, the exam is mostly a formality. Dave Renfro mentioned in a comment that some programs have specific time set aside for qualifying exam prep, free of other coursework and teaching responsibilities. Your advisor may be more familiar with any of these other systems than they are with the system at the institution they work at now. It's even likely that the system is different for different students at the same institution who are part of other programs - maybe your advisor has mentored these students and doesn't have a full picture of the requirements you face.
Now, if you had been given these preparation materials many months ago, and only now began to address the lack of preparation with 2 weeks to go, I'd say you're in quite a bit of trouble and this situation may not be recoverable. However, if the most recent materials came to you just last month, it seems like you can still be ready in time, but you will need to focus on this extensively.
I would also look at what resources your graduate program provides regarding these exams: look at your graduate handbook or similar documentation, consult with staff in the program if relevant to see what expectations are, talk to senior students in your program who have completed this step.
More generally, it's important to recognize that the PhD is a time of growing independence. You're expected to be responsible for your own education at the PhD stage, more than previous educational steps. Yes, your advisor is there to help mentor you on the things you're new to: the conduct of research, the process of academic publishing, obtaining grant funding. You're likely expected to complete other tasks on your own, though, including managing your own time. You should not expect your advisor to say "I'd like to spend X hours on Task A today, Y hours on Task B, etc".