If a competitive Ph.D. Candidate who is ABD (All but dissertation) wants to apply to tenure-track positions despite still working on their thesis; how many months do universities usually leave for those candidates to defend and graduate after the start of the tenure-track position?
More generally, not just for tenure-track positions, jobs that require a PhD typically require you do have a PhD before starting work. That doesn't mean they won't go through the hiring process beforehand, but they're going to expect that before you start your job you can say you have the degree.
Some exceptions may be granted for administrative processing; for example, if you are able to complete your defense and all degree requirements but your institution only grants degrees at the end of semesters, you may find someone that will consider you as having effectively graduated.
"All But Dissertation", though, also means you are "Anything But a Doctor". Someone ABD has not earned their degree yet. The successful completion of a thesis defense is a pretty integral part of the PhD process, I wouldn't expect anyone to take it so lightly as assuming it's a mere formality. Additionally, taking a job in the meantime seems like it would increase the risk that the thesis and defense are never finished. The time starting out as a tenure-track faculty member is an especially stressful time, with many responsibilities that do not include finishing and defending a thesis.
Like most things, though, it's ultimately up to any individual institution unless there are specific laws that bind them.