In summary, I think you should file a grievance with the department. I assume that your professor is tenured, so the likely outcome is that he will receive some feedback / counceling on how to do his job better in the future.
Now the gory details..
I don't like grading on a curve. I think it's inappropriate for most classes. If the same material is taught every semester, but in some semester the students are so strong that almost everyone deserves an A, but in some other semester the students are so weak that almost no one deserves an A - so be it. Grade the students based on their own work, not that of their random cohort. Much of your frustration seems to stem from the use of the curve. I hope that your professor will stop using the curve in the future.
As other people pointed out, the numbers that you posted show that although you did well on the exams, you didn't do any homework, which is part of the grade. A lot of people (myself included) don't like students who skip the required homework. So if some student's final grade were borderline B+ or A-, and the student did not even attempt the homeworks that are part of the grade, then I'd definitely go for the lower grade. Frankly, it sounds to me very much that your professor simply decided to penalize you a whole letter grade for not doing the homework, which to me sounds excessive. This is why I suggest that you use the process for appealing your final grade, which your department undoubtedly has. You may get your grade changed to B+ or even A- if indeed you got a B because you skipped the homework. And don't skip the homework in the future!
Professor informed me that student did not take final due to "external reasons", which may be personal.
Your professor really shouldn't be discussing other students with you! If not for the curve, I'd just say that other students' performance should not concern you. But it does, because of the curve; and your professor may have broken some Federal rules by telling you too much. Here is some free training that would benefit him: https://studentprivacy.ed.gov/training/ferpa-101-colleges-universities :) Now the other student appears to have solid grounds to complain that the professor victimized him and violating his privacy by discussing him with you.
It's possible that the professor treated the other student better than you because the other student did the homework and you did not. This sounds most plausible.
It's also possible that the professor treated the other student better than you because the other student is caucasian. I see no evidence here of anyone's race being relevant, but you're free to make this allegation to the department, and see how that plays out. But practically, you're better off focusing on your grade being too low, rather than on someone else's grade being higher than yours.
When I was an undergraduate, many decades ago, it was quite common for a course syllabus to say that students who turned in all the projects and scored better than some threshold on term exams could skip the final and get an A. It seems to be less common these days and many departments actually have grading policies requiring that everyone take the final.
When I teach, it seems that every semester some students don't take the final with the rest of the class because they have some disability requiring them to have "double time". So they take the same exam as everyone else, but with a separate proctor, and get more time to work on it.
And some students can't take the scheduled final (for example, I once had a very pregnant student who went into labor on the day of the final), and take it later. Schools have procedures for that.
My point is that if you don't see some student taking the final with the rest of your class, you should not assume that he's getting some preferential treatment. But your professor is definitely wrong to discuss the other student with you.