First of all, remind the professor.
Unless I am misunderstanding the comments, you did that before on a different assignment, but seemingly did not explore that venue with regards to the thesis deadline.
If they prove being unreasonable, two main points of contact are the department chair and the dean office. The latter is in charge of the administrative procedures and can put some pressure on the department, and are the ones ultimately responsible for the timelines to be observed. But it can not, generally, judge some specific interactions, as those may heavily depend on the content of relevant work.
As a student, the dean is who you should be complaining to. Make sure you describe the situation with sufficient clarity and level of detail. For example, "all the other students have gotten their feedbacks" is hardly a supporting argument, at best it establishes that your expectations are not entirely unreasonable. By contrast, that you are supposed to have at least two weeks for the edits as per curriculum and are already being deprived of that time is a clear and easily provable point (assuming the e-mails from the examiner did not end up in your spam folder, of course).
Teaching is a delicate matter; students are unique and, thus, should be treated differently in order to let them reach their full potential. Unfortunately, it might be plain old discrimination at play as well, and it is hard to tell. To offer a devil's advocate perspective: what if you are perceived as over-dependent on the external input? It is not implausible that a professor could consider that student A needs some specific feedback the most, and student B needs to work on their own more.
This entire tangent is caused by most of the complaints in the post being non-specific and somewhat emotional. "Being very vague and cold" is very much your perception, it is valid and affects you, but it is not clear why that should change. Similarly, unless the professor has violated some guidelines (which?), they are upholding their end of the bargain, and formal complaints are unlikely to do any good at all.